Structure and operating principle of wet-dry shop vacuum

A wet-dry shop vacuum is a device that uses an air pump to create vacuum suction to vacuum dirt, usually from floors and other surfaces. The impurities are collected by collecting in a bag or mixing it into the air stream for later treatment. Wet-dry shop vacuum used in homes as well as in industry varies in size and models – from a small battery-operated device, household vacuum cleaner, to large industrial vacuum cleaners. Hundreds of liters of dust can be handled, and self-propelled vacuum trucks are used to recover liquid spills or remove contaminated soil.

Wet-dry shop vacuums are now widely used in homes, workshops, and workplaces, it helps effort and time cleaning. We all know how it is used to vacuum the dust, but the structure of the wet-dry shop vacuum and the operating principle behind it are mostly unknown to us. This article will help enthusiasts learn more about wet-dry shop vacuums.

The operating principle is the structure of the wet-dry shop vacuum are divided into three types: wet-dry shop vacuum with filter bag, centrifugal vacuum cleaner, and water wet-dry shop vac.

The wet-dry shop vac with the filter bag

A wet-dry shop vac with filter bag was invented by an English engineer, the first wet-dry shop vac has a simple structure of brush and nozzle in front, the middle is the engine and the rear is the bag. When the engine is turned on, it pulls dust and air into the bag.

The air that is drawn in will have to be discharged at the other end so that the exhaust air will be free of dust and dirt that people put inside a filter bag (of cloth or paper), dirt will be kept here and clean air is coming out. And in the beginning, the bag acts as a filter. When newly invented, a vac cleaner or wet-dry shop vac with filter bag is composed of parts:

  1. The power socket provides power to the wet-dry shop vac.
  2. Motor to create motion for the exhaust fan.
  3. Transferring belt to beaters or brush.
  4. Flour or broom helps grind up before entering the machine.
  5. The impeller is attached to the motor to create a force that draws air into the machine.
  6. Dirty airflow goes to the rear of the device.
  7. Dirt is retained in the filter bag.
  8. Airflow is discharged after filtration.

Nowadays, with improvements in design, people have replaced bags with plastic boxes so in order to filter the air, an extra filter bag is placed inside a plastic box. The structure of the wet-dry shop vac today is more compact with the following parts:

  1. Air inlet hose
  2. Garbage box
  3. A HEPA filter helps to keep dirt in the garbage box and exhaust air out
  4. The motor helps create an attraction.
  5. Exhaust hole

The airflow after going through the 5 parts becomes cleaner and the dirt is trapped in the garbage bag.

The centrifugal wet-dry shop vac

Filter-type vacuum cleaners have a drawback that they suck dirty air through the filter bag and then blow the air out, although the air has been filtered, it still cannot be completely clean. Therefore, people began to improve into centrifugal vacuum cleaners.

The operating principle of the centrifugal wet-dry shop vac is the same as a washing machine. When spinning at high speed the water in clothes will spread out to dry clothes. Similar to a wet-dry shop vac, the air enters the filter in a vortex direction so that the dust particles are retained on the filter and the air is spread out. This principle helps make the air outwards cleaner.

Structure of a centrifugal vacuum cleaner

  1. Brush bar: the effect of this bar is to make dust in the carpet splashing out to help vac more easily.
  2. Height adjustment button
  3. Electric motor: its effect is to create a vac to attract dust inwardly, while also creating eddy air to create centrifugally force.
  4. Containers with dirt.
  5. Conical centrifuge: this is the most important part of a centrifugal vac cleaner. When the engine draws air through this set. the pair will fly in a vortex form, causing dust particles to be collected in the middle and swirl, while clean air will fly out.
  6. Air tube from the centrifugal set-out

Operation principle of centrifugal vac cleaner

Above we saw how the wet-dry shop vac is made. Here is the principle of its operation.

  • Step 1: The air is into the brush bar at the bottom
  • Step 2: Air is introduced around the centrifuge, causing dust particles to fall and air into the holes in the upper part.
  • Step 3: The air goes into the second cleaning phase.
  • Step 4: At this stage, the air is also cleaned with the same centrifugal principle as in step 2 but with a smaller centrifugal force.
  • Step 5: The air is relatively clean through the HEPA filter. Because most busy dust has been cleaned, the filter cover does not contain much dust so it does not clog the machine.
  • Step 6: Air is released back to the environment.

Most current wet-dry shop vacs use a separating principle that incorporates a HEPA filter because its cleaning power is good and easy to operate.

Water vacuum cleaner

The principle of centrifugation still limits a part of the dirt that is still unfiltered and will fly back into the environment. The solution is to use the water to trap the busy dust, the air after blowing out of the water will be swirled centrifugal to remove water vapor. And finally flying out was extremely clean air.

Here are the operating principles of typical water wet-dry shop vac

  • Step 1: Air is drawn inside the machine via the nozzle as usual
  • Step 2: The engine will blow this airflow through the water tank, where all the dirt will be trapped in the water.
  • Step 3: The air is blown out of the water and then swirled around the plastic bars to let the steam out. Steam drops back into the tank.
  • Step 4: Dry air is released back into the environment.

This principle helps to clean the dust collector, but it makes the machine more complicated because of constant water changes. Therefore, the principle of centrifugal and HEPA filter is still preferred.

In conclusion

Above, we have come together to learn about the wet-dry shop vac as well as the structure and principles, operating principles of some typical types of them. Through this article, I hope it will help you better understand the wet-dry shop vac and find your work the most suitable wet-dry shop vac.